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When will the last Bitcoin be mined and what happens?

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    When asking how long until the last bitcoin shall be mined, we need to understand that its amount is limited to 21 million. It is estimated that, around the year 2140, the network will no longer produce new bitcoins. The block subsidy will go to zero, but miners will continue to receive transaction fees, making up an ever more significant portion of the block reward. Miner revenue and, thus, Bitcoin security will rely entirely on these transaction fees. The implications of reaching Bitcoin's hard cap are multifaceted, affecting Bitcoin's economic model and miner incentives.

    When will all Bitcoin be mined?

    All Bitcoin is projected to be mined by the year 2140, according to the protocol established by Satoshi Nakamoto. The Bitcoin network operates on a predetermined issuance schedule, with new bitcoins being created as rewards for miners who successfully validate transactions and add them to the blockchain. This process, known as mining, halves the block reward approximately every four years in a mechanism called the "halving." As a result, the rate of new Bitcoin creation gradually decreases over time until it eventually reaches zero. By the year 2140, the total supply of Bitcoin will have reached its maximum limit of 21 million coins, marking the end of the mining process.

    What happens when all the Bitcoin is mined

    • No More Block Rewards: Bitcoin miners receive block rewards as an incentive for validating transactions and maintaining the network's security. Once all Bitcoin is mined, there will be no more block rewards, and miners will rely solely on transaction fees for revenue.
    • Increased Reliance on Transaction Fees: With no new Bitcoin being created, miners will increasingly depend on transaction fees to sustain their operations. This may lead to higher transaction fees as miners compete to prioritize transactions.
    • Supply and Demand Dynamics: The finite supply of Bitcoin, coupled with increasing demand, could drive up its price over time. As scarcity increases, Bitcoin's value relative to fiat currencies may rise, making it an attractive store of value.
    • Shift in Mining Economics: The mining landscape will change significantly as miners transition from block rewards to transaction fees. Miners with lower operational costs and efficient infrastructure may remain profitable, while others may exit the market due to reduced profitability.
    • Focus on Layer 2 Solutions: With the potential for higher transaction fees on the main Bitcoin blockchain, there may be increased interest and adoption of Layer 2 scaling solutions, such as the Lightning Network, to facilitate faster and cheaper transactions.
    • Ecosystem Evolution: The end of Bitcoin mining will mark a milestone in the evolution of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Developers, investors, and users will continue to innovate and adapt to the changing dynamics, potentially leading to new use cases and applications for Bitcoin and blockchain technology.


    In conclusion, the completion of Bitcoin mining will mark a pivotal moment in the history of cryptocurrency, fundamentally altering its economic landscape and shaping its future trajectory. With the finite supply of Bitcoin exhausted, the ecosystem will transition away from the issuance of new coins through mining to a model reliant solely on transaction fees to incentivize network participants.


    Eugen Tanase

    Chief Operating Officer, 1BitUp

    Eugen Tanase is Chief Operating Officer at 1BitUp. Along his long Corporate Management career he gained lots of expertise in Renewable Energy Projects, Transnational Trade of Energy Resources, and many other fields. Starting 2015 he stepped into the study Decentralized Applications and Blockchain along with Bitcoin mainstream. From 2017 he embraced WEB3 and Cloud Mining .



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